Thomas Skipworth of Cotes gained a grant from Charles I to make the river Soar "portable for barges and boats"
though the scheme was never completed.
The prominent businessmen of Loughborough secured an Act of Parliament to make the Soar navigable from their
town, northwards,to the Trent near Long Eaton. The engineers in charge were John Smith and John May.
The Loughborough Canal opened and was a roaring (or soaring!) success, making the town quite prosperous.
An Act of Parliament was passed to extend the navigation from Loughborough in two directions; One route was to
head west from Loughborough to numerous coal mines, the other line was to head southwards into Leicester. Work
began with William Jessop in charge of engineering.
The Leicester Canal was opened making the Soar navigable for almost 40 miles. The western line was also opened
- known as the Charnwood Forest Branch. However, most of the branch was made up ofrail tracks rather than a
waterway. This included a 2½ mile uphill climb from Loughborough Basin. At the western end of the branch rail
lines travelled towards Coleorton and Swannington. A track to Cloudhill, which would have connected to similar
lines on the Ashby Canal, was proposed but never built.
Another branch line (operated by a separate company) opened from the main line of the Leicester Canal (between
Cossington and Syston) to Melton Mowbray. The line was 15 miles long and used the River Wreak for virtually the
whole of its course. The line was sometimes known as the Wreak Navigation though it is better known as the
Melton Mowbray Navigation. This new line was so successful that within a year William Jessop was appointed to
survey another new line which would extend the Melton Mowbray Navigation to Oakham in Rutlandshire, a further
15 miles. The extension would be called the Oakham Canal.An Act of Parliament was passed and work began.
While the lines to Leicester and Melton Mowbray were doing very well, trade on the Charnwood Forest Branch was
very slow to pick up. The company even put on demonstrations in an attempt to encourage its use. With no real
success being gained from this the company went into the coal carrying and selling business itself.
A proposal to extend the main line of the Leicester Canal much further south was announced. A new canal, the
Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Union Canal would link the river Soar with the river Nene. However, like
many great ideas, the money ran out before the imagination did and the line reached just 17 of the proposed 44
miles, coming to a stop at Debdale Wharf near Kibworth Beauchamp.
Thus the Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Canal never even got close to
Northamptonshire. In fact, the whole project had proved to be something of a failure, the company having spent
thousands of pounds building a waterway which past nowhere in particular and ended in middle of the countryside
miles from any major town.
Meanwhile, the Charnwood Forest Branch was still struggling to attract any trade. Water
supply was one reason for lack of use so the company built Blackbrook Reservoir. Following this, trade picked
up but only very slightly.
Heavy rainfall caused Blackbrook Reservoir on the Charnwood Forest Branch to collapse. Floods destroyed an
aqueduct and part of an embankment. Repairs were begun but the branch was closed for a number of years.
The Grand Junction Canal opened between London & Birmingham. A link between the Leicester Navigations and
this new "high speed" route seemed an obvious choice and the Grand Junction Company were keen to see a link
which would connect their route to the north.However, because there were still plans for the Leicester
navigations to be extended towards Northampton, the Grand Junction did not attempt to create a link themselves.
Instead they waited to see what developed - at first this turned out to be very little.
Repairs on the Charnwood Forest Branch were completed. Sadly, the company failed to regain even the small
amount of use there had been before the floods of 1799.
A few years later more damage occurred and the company sought permission to officially
abandon the route. However, they were constantly denied permission due to objections from Lord Shaftesbury.
This was not because he wanted to use the route himself but (apparently) because he had fallen out with the
company over certain issues! For nearly half a century the company were forced to keep the unused (and
unusable) branch "officially" open.
The Oakham Canal opened after costing almost £70,000 to build. It was 15 miles long, with 19 broad locks. Boats
could now travel onto the River Soar from Rutlandshire.
The main line of the Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Canal was extended from its resting place near
Kibworth Beauchamp to Market Harborough where once again the work came to a stop. All the same, it was now a
considerable navigation, linking the south of Leicestershire to the river Trent. However, there was still no
link to the Grand Junction Canal.
By now ideas of connecting Leicester to Northampton seemed pointless. The Grand Junction Canal was running a
tramway into Northampton and would surely soon convert this to a full navigation.The obvious thing to do now
was to connect the Leicester navigations to the Grand Junction Canal.
Work began with Benjamin Bevan appointed as engineer. However, much to the annoyance of the
Grand Junction Company, the new canal was to be build to narrow lock standards. The Grand Junction Canal had
tried for many years to promote the advantages of wide canals and had tried to convince many waterways to
convert to broad dimensions. In most cases (as with this new canal) finances made the idea of a broad route
impossible. The new link had to climb two massive hills and cut through two tunnels, a narrow route was the
When it became clear that the Leicester businessmen had given up on the idea of connecting
their waterways to the River Nene it left the businesses of the Fenlands without a link into the main system. A
number of plans were put forward to rekindle the idea of a link between the River Nene & Leicester. One
idea was to connect the River Nene at Stamford to the River Soar via the Oakham Canal and Melton Mowbray
Navigation. Another proposal planned a connection from the Nene at Stamford to the canal at Market
Harborough.Unfortunately both Bills failed to get through Parliament in 1811.A few years later the Grand
Junction Company connected their main line to the River Nene in Northampton.
The new link between the Leicester navigations and the Grand Junction Canal opened and was named the Grand
Union Canal (not to be confused with the later canal route of the same name). A junction with the
Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Union Canal was made at Foxton, turning the Market Harborough stretch
into a branch line off the new main line.
The southern end of the new main line ran into the Grand Junction Canal at Norton Junction
near Buckby. The new link was built on very hilly terrain necessitating a long winding course, two large lock
flights at either end (at the villages of Watford and Foxton) and two tunnels. Three reservoirs were needed to
supply the link with a lot of water because the large lock flights meant most of its water was lost into other
canals at each end.
The Grand Union Canal allowed boats to travel from London to Leicester, Nottingham, Derby
and the north via a much shorter route than previously.However, the line was not the instant success that the
company had hoped for. Most of the boats on the Grand Junction were broad beam and could not enter the link at
all and hold ups on the long narrow lock flights did nothing to encourage narrow boats either.
After just 44 years the Oakham Canal was abandoned. The main reason for its demise was the usual story of
railway competition.After closure of the canal the railway took over parts of the bed. The Melton Mowbray
Navigation which had shared a basin with the Oakham Canal in Melton Mowbray continued to operate for many years
after the arrival of the railways.
The owners of the River Soar Navigation were finally able to officially abandon the Charnwood Forest Branch
which had stood idle since 1801. A local land owner applied to buy part of the land through which the branch
past, he was granted permission and an Act was passed to allow the branch to be abandoned. (See below for a
description of the Charnwood Forest Branch route).
After 80 years the Melton Mowbray (or Wreak) Navigation also closed leaving Melton Mowbray with no waterway
outlet to the main canal system. Of course by now railways were by far the dominant freight carriers in the
Mr. Fellows of Fellows, Morton & Clayton (who were the main carriers on the Grand Union link) pushed the
company to convert the canal to wide beam. When this was not done he tried to encourage the Grand Junction
Company to buy the link.
The Grand Union and the Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Union canals were purchased by the Grand Junction
Canal Company. By now though even the Grand Junction Company wasn't whole-heatedly in favour of widening the
link. Instead they looked into methods of making the lock flights more efficient. The simple answer was to make
a duplicate flight alongside the existing locks to make two way traffic but this would cause other problems,
especially water supply which was already a major headache.
Work began on a bold idea to build inclined planes by the side of the Foxton and Watford locks. Planes had been
used successfully a hundred years earlier in Shropshire but this was to be a much grander construction with two
caissons each able to carry two boats and with steam power used to lift the caissons up and down the hillside.
The Grand Junction's own engineer, G.C. Thomas was given the job of designing the planes. A prototype model was
constructed at the Grand Junction Canal's maintenance yard at Bulbourne.
After successful tests on the model of the inclined plane, work began for real at Foxton.
The plane took two years to complete and cost £39,000. At just 12 minutes a ride it cut nearly 80 minutes off
the time normally taken to use the narrow locks but unfortunately the plane turned out to be not far short of a
total failure. Its structure had many faults and the rails under the caissons collapsed a number of times under
their heavy weight. Trade was declining too and because the steam engine had to be ready at a moments notice if
a boat turned up, it proved far too costly to keep it in steam permanently. Long periods could pass with no
boats at all while the cost of steam was (literally) going up in smoke.
The plan to construct a second plane on the Watford flight was dropped and the narrow locks were never replaced
by wide ones.
Working absurdly below its potential Foxton Inclined Plane was closed at night time and the old narrow locks
were reopened for night traffic.
Foxton Plane was closed completely and all traffic reverted to the lock flight once more though the incline was
used from time to time during lock maintenance and repairs.
For 4 years the plane was maintained with a view to it reopening if trade picked up. This was completely ruled
out when WW1 began and from then the plane was left to decline.
Foxton Incline was dismantled and sold for scrap though its site is still clearly marked a few yards to the
east of the lock flight at Foxton.
The whole stretch of waterway from Norton Junction through to Leicester and on to Long Eaton was merged with
the Grand Junction Canal to form the Grand Union Canal.
The remains of Foxton Inclined Plane are preserved and can be visited free of charge. Currently there is little
to see apart from a grassy bank and a few bricks forming the base of the top basin and steam house. Some form
of restoration is planned but "surely" they do not expect to rebuild a fully working plane.... do they?
Back to Top
The Grand Union Canal - Leicester Section is described in all up to date canal guides, it is
fully navigable and therefore I have not included a full route description. Instead, I have picked out a few of
my personal favourite locations.
Among the route's more interesting places is Loughborough town centre where support is
needed to keep the old basin alive. Plans were announced in 1997 to fill it in and build on it. It is now 220
years since the basin was first opened, making it one of the oldest in Britain.
The A6 runs through the centre of town right past the basin.The Charnwood Forest Branch
began in Loughborough but because its first few miles were railway rather than waterway it is not until
Nanpantan that any traces can be found. (See below for a description of the Charnwood Forest Branch).
Barrow-on-Soar and Mountsorrel are very nice areas and are both easily found near the old
A6, just off the new A6. Both have a lock and a nice canal side pub along with old canal side buildings.
I would not advise my worst enemy to drive through Leicester. I'm pretty good at finding my
way across any town and rarely get lost but I've been to Leicester twice and got completely lost twice. The
ring roads are a disgrace, numerous junctions have no sign posts at all! If you wish to visit the canal
locations within the city boundaries I strongly advise buying a street atlas.
If you manage to make your way to the south of the city and onto the A6 things get a lot
easier. The former Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Union Canal can be found along any lane west of the A6
from Great Glen to Market Harborough. This includes around 16 locks, one tunnel and the remains of the Foxton
To reach the inclined plane and the 10 locks alongside it you need to take the A6 south east
of Leicester (if you dare) until you reach the B6047.Take this road south towards Market Harborough, within ½ a
mile you will cross the Market Harborough Arm.
Within another ½ a mile you need to turn right onto a minor road. This comes to a junction
after about 2 miles. At the junction you can turn right to see the pretty village of Foxton, go straight ahead
through a gate into the marina at the bottom of the locks or go left.
The left turn heads south west and after about ¾ of a mile you come to a wooded car parking
area on your left. This is the car park and picnic area of a local nature trail but it is also the official
parking place for visitors to the canal at Foxton. The canal is just a few yards further along the lane.
Once at the canal you should head north for about 400 yards, this will bring you to the top
of the 10 Foxton Locks - it is a marvellous sight.From the top you can see that the locks are in 2 staircase
flights of 5. Between the 2 staircases is a small pound where boats can pass. Alongside the locks are large
side ponds used to reduce the amount of water used.To the right, beyond the ponds, is a building with a flat
This is now Foxton Canal Museum (well worth a visit) though it used to be a pumping
station. Beside you at the top of the locks is a white lock keepers cottage, next door is a workshop which is
often open to the public. On the far side of the top lock is a second water channel, this used to be the route
to the top of the inclined plane.
To see the site of the incline you must cross the canal via one of the small bridges over
the locks. These bridges give a brilliant bird's eye view of the lock flight. Pathways lead between the side
ponds to the back of the museum (at roof level).
When you arrive at the back of the museum you are actually standing at the top of the
incline in the position where boats once entered the huge caissons. Ahead of you a slope drops down very
steeply into some bushes. This is the top half of the incline. Some bits of the original rails still lie in the
It is possible to step onto the roof of the museum, once again this gives marvellous views
of the lock flight. The reason the roof is flat is because it used to have a building on it - the engine house
for the incline I believe. It is possible to walk down the incline, heading at "10 o'clock" down the slope.
This will bring you past a number of large museum exhibits to a road which crosses the lower
arm leading to the incline. This arm is now used for private moorings and therefore cannot be walked along.
From the bridge walk up the road to the bottom of the locks. On a hot summer day this area will be buzzing with
sightseers. There is a pub, a cafe and boat trips available at the bottom of the flight. In my opinion Foxton
is one the very best canal locations in the country. A "gongoozlers" delight!
Another interesting site on the Leicester section of the Grand Union Canal is Watford Locks
- better known to motorists as Watford Gap. To reach here a bit of walking is called for but its a nice walk!
The easiest way to direct you here by road is by exiting the M1 at junction 18 (Rugby).Head south on the A5 for
just under 4 miles to the B4036. Turn left onto this road and you will soon see the Stag's Head pub. Park
nearby.By the way, its an excellent pub with nice food and a nice canal side garden. From the pub you need to
walk further down the road, across the canal bridge and onto the canal.
The M1 motorway is very close and very loud here just to the east. Once on the canal you
need to walk north for about 800 yards. First you will pass 2 single locks and then come to a sharp right hand
turn. Right in front of you is a staircase of 4 locks which seem to tower above you up the hill. At the top
there is a large side pond and one more single lock. From a "gongoozlers" point of view I was a bit unlucky
when I made my only visit here.
On the other hand I saw something you don't usually see in mid-summer - a lock flight with
no gates. Maintenance was going on and the lock sides were being painted. The canal was virtually dry, just a
few puddles with small fish desperately wriggling about to survive. It was possible to stand over the locks and
look right to the bottom of the flight through the open gates. One boat crew had not read the messages posted
along the route. They arrived at the bottom lock and were left with no choice other than to drag their hired
boat back along the canal. If you are feeling fit you can walk north east a further 1½ miles along the towpath.
This will take you under the M1 to Crick Tunnel which is said to be haunted!
Back on the road, travel south on the A5 for a further 1½ miles. On route you will pass over
the Leicester section but at the 1½ mile mark you will cross the Grand Union main line beside the Boat Inn and
Buckby Top Lock. To the south east are 6 more locks but about 600 yards north west is Norton Junction where the
route to Leicester begins. At the junction is a fair sized junction house while in the "V" of the junction is a
much smaller house now used as a holiday cottage, available from "Country Holidays". This small cottage used to
be a toll office.